Russia's role in the region, for example, is related to the intrusion of integrative processes with the West and the European Union, and China's investment in infrastructure and industry is seen as a vital source of finance, making China to be recognized as perhaps the most serious upcoming player. Other countries such as Turkey, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates are considered as political factors that can undermine already fragile relations between states and between communities in the region. It is clear that the emphasis is on the possible strengthening of so-called Islamic extremism, thus again put Bosnia and Herzegovina under a special loupe.
The migrant crisis that began in 2013 is characterized by a massive and predominantly irregular migration of people from North Africa and the Middle East (MENA) countries to the European Union (EU). EU member states were affected primarily by security issues provoked by this crisis which also revealed specific weaknesses of the EU immigration policy.
The problems of the Western Balkans (WB), especially Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), became part of the debate within international and national institutions and forums, but certainly different in terms of quality and level of access. One of the most important institutions that devoted its attention to the WB region is the British House of the Lords (or their Select Committee on International Relations) which held very important discussions on contemporary trends in the WB and its future. In this regard, the conclusions they have made, as the very course of the debate, present a valuable insight into British politics towards this part of Europe, and the accent and recommendations they have made are becoming the subject of closer research in attempt to understand the steps that the United Kingdom will undertake. Undoubtedly, this is the reason why the domestic, BiH perspective should make an effort which would lead to the creation of its better position within the political interests of this world power.
It is not an easy task to determine the strategy of the Bosnian foreign policy in the Western Balkans (WB), where several states are trying to establish their domination, especially if the considerably different interests of the three constituent peoples of BiH are taken into account, and that two neighboring countries – Serbia and Croatia - have a direct or indirect impact on the politics of BiH.
Unlike the European economic area that the Western Balkans (WB) mostly depends on, it would be much more difficult to achieve that WB states become primarily part of a new common economic community established by China, Russia and Turkey.
The issue of Turkish influence is linked together with the influence of Middle Eastern theocracies. Actually so-called 'silent Islamization' is seen as a problem in the areas where Muslims are the majority. Turkey is considered as a leader and a country that can significantly disrupt the EU's strategy. Dr. Michael Taylor, from questioned and by affair revealed Cambridge Analytica, gave certain prediction and described Turkish approach as "a kind of neo-Ottomanism".
The Election Law of Bosnia and Herzegovina, drawing its basic principles from the Constitution of BiH, has since its first adoption until now passed through changes that caused a total of 20 amendments, out of which only four after the first judgment of the European Court of Human Rights (Sejdić-Finci vs. BiH) in 2009.
At the beginning of 2019, China’s signature Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) involved over 100 countries that have signed BRI-related cooperation agreements. Moreover, at least 29 international financial organizations participate in the BRI, including the IMF, EBRD, EIB, World Bank, etc. Governments across Europe have expressed their interest in and cooperation with the BRI. At present, 17 EU member states are also members of the China-led Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB). The 16+1 framework established by China in Central, Eastern and Southeast Europe (CESEE) in 2013 includes eleven EU member states and five countries from the Western Balkans.
Government authorities across the globe are confronted with periodically public pressure due to relatively high automotive fuel prices. Recent events in France (“yellow vests” protests) have shown that the price of fuel has become a sensitive national issue since it has a significant impact on the citizens’ standard of living. Canada and Australia and some of the EU member states (Austria, Belgium, Luxembourg, Malta and Slovenia) have temporarily or permanently implemented fuel price control systems, while the intervention of state authorities in certain countries (China, Israel, Algeria, Indonesia, Malaysia, Bolivia, South Africa, etc.) maintains a permanent control of fuel prices.