Russia's role in the region, for example, is related to the intrusion of integrative processes with the West and the European Union, and China's investment in infrastructure and industry is seen as a vital source of finance, making China to be recognized as perhaps the most serious upcoming player. Other countries such as Turkey, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates are considered as political factors that can undermine already fragile relations between states and between communities in the region. It is clear that the emphasis is on the possible strengthening of so-called Islamic extremism, thus again put Bosnia and Herzegovina under a special loupe.

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In early February 2018, the European Union (EU) Strategy for the Western Balkans (WB) was presented in Strasbourg,and it represents a framework for the integration of Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Kosovo, Macedonia and Serbia into the EU. The strategy requires the authorities in the WB to invest more efforts and “deliver on the well-known conditions for accession”, as well as to promote the establishment of a common economic space and launch the economic development in the Balkans. One of the objectives is the improvement of the institutional connectivity of the WB with the EU. The strategy promotes six initiatives related to the rule of law, security and migration, socio-economic development, transport and energy connectivity, digital agenda, reconciliation and good neighborly relations, and it is considered a geostrategic plan for investing in a stable, strong and united Europe based on common values.

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